Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system, which belongs to the group of inflammatory demyelinating diseases. About 2 million people worldwide suffer from this disease, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40; women are almost twice as likely as men to be affected.
The causes of multiple sclerosis are not fully known. Its formation is greatly influenced by demyelinating foci around the brain and spinal cord. Multiple Sclerosis "attacks" myelin, which is responsible for building the envelope of nerve fibres, causing their destruction. The "naked" fibers can't conduct signals from the central nervous system well, which is why neurological problems occur.
It is also noted that patients with autoimmune diseases such as type I diabetes and thyroid disease are at greater risk of individual development of multiple sclerosis.
Signs of disease may appear several years before the diagnosis. One of them is fatigue independent of physical activity, as well as retrobulbar inflammation of the optic nerve, which is preceded by frequent visual disturbances.
In the first stage of the disease, the most frequent symptoms of multiple sclerosis are:
Symptoms are not uniform and not always the same in all patients. Most often they appear as a group of symptoms - some will be paresis, others will have mild hypoesthesia (low sensitivity). In subsequent phases, they are accompanied by sphincter disorders, emotional instability, muscle tension, dizziness and frequent falls.
Fatigue syndrome is a sign that appears almost the first. Fatigue is the strongest in the afternoon.
The treatment of multiple sclerosis is based on the prevention and elimination of symptoms by using glucocorticosteroids, which can be taken intravenously or orally by the patient. When such therapy is ineffective, immunosuppressants are prescribed to suppress immune system activity. In the treatment of multiple sclerosis, regular rehabilitation and exercise are beneficial.
In case of recurrence of the disease steroid drugs are used to speed up symptom control and reduce the severity of inflammatory response in the demyelinating focus. If the disease is rapidly progressing, the patient is prescribed immunosuppressants.
Symptomatic pharmacological treatment and rehabilitation procedures help with high muscle tension and sphincter disorders. Patients suffering from multiple sclerosis, take painkillers to reduce muscle tension, as well as drugs regulating defecation, if necessary - and antidepressants.
The beneficial effects of a healthy lifestyle on patients cannot be ignored. Taking care of the right weight, preventing physical and psychological fatigue, preventing inflammatory reactions will help protect the body from a new relapse.